The street drugs cocaine and methamphetamine also are stimulants. Diuretics are drugs that change the body’s balance of fluids and salts. They can cause the body to lose water, which can lower an athlete’s weight. Diuretics also may help athletes pass drug tests that check for signs of drugs in the urine. It’s easy to imagine the pressures of an upcoming competition and becoming overwhelmed at the thought of specific aspects of performance. Performance anxiety may lead to panic attacks that induce physical symptoms like a racing heart, sweating and shortness of breath.
Sports can also help build important life skills like discipline and perseverance. For some young athletes, however, the pressure to make a team or gain a competitive advantage can lead to the use of banned substances, such as anabolic-androgenic steroids. Although these performance-enhancing drugs are most commonly used by male athletes who play football, baseball, and lacrosse, males who participate in other sports and female athletes sometimes use them, too.
What are the pros and cons of drug use in sports?
About 80% of people who use heroin used and abused prescription opioids first. In addition, some scientists claim that using drugs may be necessary for certain athletes to compete at a high level. For example, studies have shown that caffeine improves reaction time and vigilance for elite cyclists and runners who experience periods of intense activity followed by rest days when they cannot consume any caffeine. Currently, only a muscle biopsy could provide the necessary evidence but this is not practical in sports. The US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) state that it is not possible to detect gene doping with present technology. Despite being banned in sports, both in and out of competition, since 1988, athletes have used diuretics for two reasons.
Then, we review the major PED classes with a focus on pathophysiology, complexities of antidoping testing, and relevant toxicities. Providers from diverse practice environments are likely to care for patients using PEDs for a variety of reasons and levels of sport; these providers should be aware of common PED classes and their risks. Some athletes use diuretics to mask the presence of other drugs such as anabolic steroids. The athletes who need to ‘make a weight’ such as a boxer or judo player may also be tempted to use a diuretic as it can cause rapid weight loss. However the method is illegal and can lead to severe dehydration.
Athletes Suffering in Silence
They also decrease your appetite when you should be replacing calories after using so much energy. At higher doses stimulants can cause you to become irritable and aggressive, they can also cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture leading to convulsions. When you are very active, your body adapts to provide you with the support you need, such as increasing the rate your heart pumps blood and supplying oxygen to your muscles. Your brain works to maintain body temperature, to coordinate your movement and make sure you are alert. Depressant drugs such as cannabis, alcohol and opiates slow down your breathing.
On the next page, we look at some methods of doping and issues surrounding detection. Such therapies are used in cancer therapy to negative effects of drugs in sport help people who were born preterm. EPO, Lance Armstrong’s downfall, is used to treat anemia in cases of severe kidney disease.
EFFECTS OF PEDS: TESTOSTERONE VIDEO TRANSCRIPT
However, side-effects of the drugs include addiction, aggression, anxiety, hypertension, brain hemorrhage, coma, convulsions, dehydration, heart attacks, insomnia, stroke, tremors, and even death. The primary medical use of these compounds vary, but include treatment of cancer or aiding those born prematurely. Examples include human growth hormone (hGH), erythropoietin (EPO), insulin, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), and adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH). Despite the presence of some growth factors, platelet-derived preparations were removed from the List as current studies on PRP do not demonstrate any potential for performance enhancement beyond a potential therapeutic effect.